Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 3 – Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The Company’s financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) as determined by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and include all adjustments necessary for the fair presentation of its balance sheet, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. These estimates and assumptions are based on current facts, historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording of expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ materially and adversely from these estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and actual results, the Company’s future results of operations will be affected.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with original maturities of 90 days or less at acquisition to be cash equivalents. There were no cash equivalents as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2021.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company does not use derivative instruments to hedge exposures to interest rate, market, or foreign currency risks. The Company evaluates all of its financial instruments, including notes payable, to determine if such instruments are derivatives or contain features that qualify as embedded derivatives. Embedded derivatives must be separately measured from the host contract if all the requirements for bifurcation are met. The assessment of the conditions surrounding the bifurcation of embedded derivatives depends on the nature of the host contract. Bifurcated embedded derivatives are recognized at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in the statement of operations each period. Bifurcated embedded derivatives are classified with the related host contract in the Company’s balance sheet.
In November 2020 (the “November 2020 Notes”), the Company entered into note agreements that were determined to have embedded derivative instruments in the form of a contingent put option (“Share Settlement Feature”). The notes are recognized at the value of proceeds received after allocating issuance proceeds to the separable instruments issued with the notes and to the bifurcated contingent Share Settlement Feature. The notes are subsequently measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method to accrete interest over their term to bring the notes’ initial carrying value to their principal balance at maturity. The bifurcated Share Settlement Feature is initially measured at fair value which is included in the notes payable balance on the balance sheet and subsequently measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized as a component of other income (expense) in the statements of operations. On January 28, 2021, the November 2020 Notes were fair valued and converted into 211,273 shares of the Company’s common stock. As of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2021, there is no Share Settlement Feature.
Concentrations of Credit Risk and Off-balance Sheet Risk
Cash and cash equivalents are financial instruments that are potentially subject to concentrations of credit risk. The Company’s cash and cash equivalents are deposited in accounts at large financial institutions, and amounts may exceed federally insured limits totaling $250,000. The Company believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial strength of the depository institutions in which the cash and cash equivalents are held. The Company has no financial instruments with off-balance sheet risk of loss as of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2021.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost and depreciated over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Depreciation is recorded using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets, generally three to ten years.
Finite Lived Intangible Assets
Intangible assets with finite lives are comprised of patents and licenses for developed technology, that are amortized on a straight-line basis over their expected useful lives, which is their contractual term or estimated useful life. Patents consist of filing and legal fees incurred, which are initially recorded at cost. Intangible assets are tested for impairment based on undiscounted cash flows and, if impaired, are written down to fair value based on discounted cash flows.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets
The Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. If the sum of the estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of an asset is less than its net book value, an impairment loss is recognized. Measurement of an impairment loss is based on the fair value of an asset. No impairment was recorded during the nine months ended December 31, 20201 and the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.
Fair Value Measurement
The Company follows the accounting guidance in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820 for its fair value measurements of financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis. Under this accounting guidance, fair value is defined as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability.
The accounting guidance requires fair value measurements be classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, for similar assets or liabilities that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs which are supported by little or no market activity and that are financial instruments whose values are determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques, as well as instruments for which the determination of fair value requires significant judgment or estimation.
The fair value hierarchy also requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The Company accounted for certain common stock warrants outstanding as a liability at fair value and adjusts the instruments to fair value at each reporting period. This liability is subject to re-measurement at each balance sheet date until exercised, and any change in fair value is recognized in the Company’s statements of operations. The fair value of the warrants issued by the Company have been estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation. As of December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2021, all of the warrant liabilities have been reclassified to equity.
The Company adopted the new revenue standard, ASC 606, on March 31, 2019 using the full retrospective approach. The adoption did not have an effect on 2021 or 2020 revenue recognition or a cumulative effect on opening equity, as the timing and measurement of revenue recognition is materially the same as under ASC 605. The core principle of the new revenue standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The following five steps are applied to achieve that core principle:
For contracts where the period between when the Company transfers a promised good or service to the customer and when the customer pays is one year or less, the Company has elected the practical expedient to not adjust the promised amount of consideration for the effects of a significant financing component.
The Company’s performance obligation is to provide a development service that enhances an asset that the customer controls. The Company receives upfront payments in advance of providing services and payment upon reaching milestones.
The Company is not able to reasonably measure the outcome of its performance obligations that are satisfied over time because it is in the early stages of the contracts. Therefore, the amount of performance that will be required in its contracts cannot be reliably estimated and the Company recognizes revenue up to the amount of costs incurred.
On November 14, 2019, the Company entered into a new agreement with Asahi Glass Co., Ltd. (“Asahi”), which terminates the February 1, 2019 agreement as of June 16, 2019, (the “Effective Date”) of the new agreement. Under the terms of the new agreement, Asahi will pay the Company $0.1 million within 60 days of the Effective Date. The Company will provide three pieces of updated samples to Asahi by August 31, 2020. On December 10, 2019, the Company received the $0.1 million payment from Asahi and the Company delivered three pieces of updated samples to Asahi on September 28, 2020.
No revenue was recognized by the Company during the nine months ended December 31, 2021 and the fiscal year ended March 31, 2021.
Research and Development
Research and development costs, including in-process research and development acquired as part of an asset acquisition for which there is no alternative future use, is expensed as incurred. Advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research and development activities are expensed when the activity has been performed or when the goods have been received rather than when the payment is made.
The Company expenses stock-based compensation to employees and non-employees over the requisite service period based on the estimated grant-date fair value of the awards. The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, and the assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent management’s best estimates and involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment.
Expected Term - The expected term of options represents the period that the Company’s stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding based on the simplified method, which is the half-life from vesting to the end of its contractual term. The simplified method was used because the Company does not have sufficient historical exercise data to provide a reasonable basis for an estimate of expected term.
Expected Volatility - The Company historically has lacked company-specific historical and implied volatility information. Therefore, it estimates its expected stock volatility based on the historical volatility of a publicly traded set of peer companies and expects to continue to do so until such time as it has adequate historical data regarding the volatility of its own traded stock price.
Risk-Free Interest Rate - The Company bases the risk-free interest rate on the implied yield available on U. S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with an equivalent remaining term.
Expected Dividend - The Company has never declared or paid any cash dividends on its common shares and does not plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future, and, therefore, uses an expected dividend yield of zero in its valuation models.
The Company accounts for forfeited awards as they occur.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are computed based upon the difference between the financial statement and income tax basis of assets and liabilities using the enacted marginal tax rate applicable when the related asset or liability is expected to be realized or settled. Deferred income tax expenses or benefits are based on the changes in the asset or liability each period. If available evidence suggests that it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized, a valuation allowance is required to reduce the deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. Future changes in such valuation allowance are included in the provision for deferred income taxes in the period of change.
ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, (“ASC 740”), also clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements and prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement process for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. For those benefits to be recognized, a tax position must be more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. ASC 740 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim period, disclosure and transition. Based on the Company’s evaluation, it has been concluded that there are no significant uncertain tax positions requiring recognition in the Company’s financial statements. The Company believes that its income tax positions and deductions would be sustained on audit and does not anticipate any adjustments that would result in material changes to its financial position.
In its financial statements, the Company utilizes an expected annual effective tax rate in determining its income tax provisions for the interim periods. That rate differs from U.S. statutory rates primarily as a result of valuation allowance related to the Company’s net operating loss carryforward as a result of the historical losses of the Company.
Net Loss per Share
ASC 260, Earnings Per Share, requires dual presentation of basic and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) with a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of the basic EPS computation to the numerator and denominator of the diluted EPS computation. Basic EPS excludes dilution. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity.
Basic net loss per share of common stock excludes dilution and is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share of common stock reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity unless inclusion of such shares would be anti-dilutive. Since the Company has only incurred losses, basic and diluted net loss per share is the same.
The following table presents the computation of basic and diluted net loss per common share (in thousands, except share and per share amounts):
Securities that could potentially dilute loss per share in the future that were not included in the computation of diluted loss per share at December 31, 2021 and March 31, 2021 are as follows:
Emerging Growth Company
The Company is considered to be an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended (JOBS Act). The JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. Thus, an emerging growth company can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. The Company has elected to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) which supersedes FASB Topic 840, Leases (Topic 840) and provides principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases for both lessees and lessors. The new standard requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee. This classification will determine whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease, respectively. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than twelve months regardless of classification. Leases with a term of twelve months or less will be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases. In January 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-01, Leases (Topic 842) Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842, which amends ASU 2016-02 to provide entities an optional transition practical expedient to not evaluate under Topic 842 existing or expired land easements that were not previously accounted for as leases under the current lease guidance in Topic 842. An entity that elects this practical expedient should evaluate new or modified land easements under Topic 842 beginning at the date that the entity adopts Topic 842. The standard will be effective for non-public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the effect that the updated standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, Earnings Per Share, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, Derivatives and Hedging – (Part I) Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features, (Part II) Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception, which are intended to reduce the complexity associated with accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. Specifically, a down round feature would no longer cause a freestanding equity-linked financial instrument (or an embedded conversion option) to be considered “not indexed to an entity’s own stock” and therefore accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in current earnings. In addition, the guidance re-characterized the indefinite deferral of certain provisions on distinguishing liabilities from equity to a scope exception with no accounting effect. This guidance becomes effective January 1, 2019 and early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted this standard on April 1, 2020 and the adoption did not have a material impact on its financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718), Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which is intended to simplify aspects of share-based compensation issued to non-employees by making the guidance consistent with accounting for employee share-based compensation. The standard is effective for non-public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within that fiscal year. Early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted this standard on April 1, 2020 and the adoption did not have a material impact on its financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which simplifies accounting for convertible instruments by removing major separation models required under current GAAP. The ASU removes certain settlement conditions that are required for equity contracts to qualify for the derivative scope exception and it also simplifies the diluted earnings per share calculation in certain areas. This ASU is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. This update permits the use of either the modified retrospective or fully retrospective method of transition. The Company is currently evaluating the effect that the updated standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt-Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40). This ASU reduces diversity in an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options (for example, warrants) that remain equity classified after modification or exchange. This ASU provides guidance for a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that is not within the scope of another Topic. It specifically addresses: (1) how an entity should treat a modification of the terms or conditions or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange; (2) how an entity should measure the effect of a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange; and (3) how an entity should recognize the effect of a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange. This ASU will be effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. An entity should apply the amendments prospectively to modifications or exchanges occurring on or after the effective date of the amendments. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company is currently evaluating the effect that the updated standard will have on its financial statements and related disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef